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                幼兒園集體教學中教師提問與回應的技巧

                2014-11-11 11:46| 發布者:快樂寶貝| 查看:17320| 評論:0

                摘要:  在幼兒園集體教學中,教師提問與回應的質量直接影響幼兒的學習效果和教學目標的實現。恰當、適宜的提問可以引導幼兒積極思考,有效支持和推動幼兒深入學習和探究;同樣,積極、有效的回應可以激起幼兒的學習熱情 ...

                  在幼兒園集體教學中,教師提問與回應的質量直接影響幼兒的學習效果和教學目標的實現。恰當、適宜的提問可以引導幼兒積極思考,有效支持和推動幼兒深入學習和探究;同樣,積極、有效的回應可以激起幼兒的學習熱情和探究欲望,使提問的作用得到充分發揮。下面結合教育教學實際,就如何提高提問與回應的質量提出一些實用性強的技巧。

                  一、提問的技巧。

                  1.緊扣教學目標提問這要求教師在備課時必須充分解讀教材,圍繞教學目標找準教學中的重難點,在知識的關鍵處、理解的疑難處等精心提問。如大班語言活動《有朋友真好》,故事描寫了青蛙和癩蛤蟆之間的真摯友情:青蛙發現癩蛤蟆的鐘壞了,于是在除夕夜去買鐘;癩蛤蟆因為青蛙來晚了而產生了一系列可怕的猜想,并準備去救青蛙;而當青蛙毫發無損地出現在癩蛤蟆面前時,癩蛤蟆仍舊不放心地把這些可怕的猜想再向青蛙詢問一遍,這是故事中的點睛之筆。如何讓幼兒充分理解這種真摯的感情是活動的主要目標之一,也是難點所在。為此,教師這樣提問:"你從哪些地方可以看出青蛙和癩蛤蟆是一對真正的好朋友?"大部分幼兒都能把故事中體現兩者感情的情節找出來,當少數幼兒還不能找到講到上述故事中的點睛之處時,教師再次提問:"癩蛤蟆明明看到青蛙安全出現在它面前了,為什么還要把它可怕的猜想再問青蛙呢?" 這兩個提問都緊扣教學目標,很好地幫助幼兒進行了理解。

                  2.緊扣幼兒提問●緊扣幼兒的年齡特點。幼兒的年齡決定他們的能力大小、思維方式等,教師提問時就要充分考慮幼兒的這些特點,這樣才能提高提問的精準度。如在繪本《鱷魚怕怕牙醫怕怕》中,鱷魚和牙醫講的話語始終是一樣的,為讓幼兒體會到這一點,老師這樣問大班幼兒:"你在這個故事中發現了什么秘密?"大班幼兒稍加思考便發現了這個秘密。有個年輕老師想把這個繪本介紹給中班幼兒,因為她感覺此繪本內容沒有幾句話,中班幼兒也能理解。講完故事后老師也提了這個關于秘密的問題,中班幼兒無一人能講得出。后來改成這樣對中班幼兒提問:"你們有沒有發現鱷魚和牙醫講的話是怎么樣的?"通過這樣的引導,中班幼兒才逐漸明白這其中的有趣的秘密。這就表明,緊扣幼兒年齡特點的提問,才能有效發揮提問的作用。

                  ●考慮幼兒的個別差異。由于幼兒能力不同,教師的提問要考慮不同層次幼兒的需要。大部分的提問要針對中等能力的幼兒,這樣可以保證大多數幼兒的積極性。同時也要為能力強和較弱的幼兒準備相應的提問,如一些需要進行一定概括和創新思考的問題可以問能力強的幼兒,也可設計一些難度不大、經過思考都能回答的問題問能力弱的幼兒,以使得每個幼兒都在原有水平上有提高。

                  3.減少簡單低層次的提問一種是教師很隨便地提問"好不好"、"對不對"等等,幼兒無需思考,只要通過揣摩老師提問的語氣來回答"好"或"不好",濫用這類提問易導致幼兒養成不動腦、過分相信和依賴教師的不良品質;另一種情況是簡單重復的提問,這種情況較易出現在一些有重復情節的語言活動中。如在語言活動《老鼠太太請客》中,老鼠太太共請了5位客人,老師出示第一幅畫面提問:"第一位客人是誰?它帶來了什么禮物?"后面幾幅圖依次出現,提問也是依次類推。幼兒才看到第二幅就沒勁了。可以這樣提問:"今天老鼠太太一共請了5位客人,我們來看看它請了哪些客人,你最喜歡誰帶來的禮物?"幼兒認真觀察,教師做引導,幼兒很快就理解了故事。記得應彩云老師上的《幸福的大桌子》中了解三個兔寶寶職業的環節,應老師這樣提問:兔老大是海員,海員是什么?兔老二是廚師,你在哪里見過廚師?兔老三是音樂家,你知道誰是音樂家?這種提問拒絕簡單重復,引導幼兒從不同的角度去思考,活躍了幼兒思維,提升了活動效果。

                  4.避免毫無線索的提問有老師在教學活動開始前,為了吸引幼兒注意,常常會先不出示教具而提問:"今天老師帶來一位客人,猜猜它是誰啊?"這種毫無線索的提問問過幾次,就引不起幼兒回答的興趣了。又如在語言活動《小松樹和大葵花》中,小松鼠和大獅子在最后有一段相互贊賞的話,因為故事前面毫無這方面的提示,因此當老師提問"小松鼠和大獅子會說些什么話呢?"的時候,幼兒沒有一點頭緒,只能亂猜一氣。可見,這類毫無線索的提問是無效的。

                  二、回應的技巧1.幫助幼兒有效提升● 善于追問(1)當幼兒回答離正確答案只有一步之遙時,教師的追問可以幫助幼兒順利到達終點。如看圖講述活動《河馬村長》中,第一幅圖是許多小動物圍在一起討論誰當村長的事,孩子不會一下子看出來,有孩子說到"中間有張紙",教師馬上追問:"大家圍在一起,中間還有紙和筆,可能會在干什么?"有孩子回答"在開會";教師繼續追問:"看小動物的表情,它們在開什么會?或是會因為什么事開會?"經過追問啟發,孩子回答到:"可能在討論工作。"(2)當幼兒回答偏離主題時,教師的追問可以把幫助幼兒駛回正確航道。如社會活動《山坡哪兒去了》中,教師提問:"你們家周圍有哪些美麗的景色?"一個孩子從家旁邊的公園說起,說著就說到自己的奶奶常在公園里鍛煉、媽媽在公園里跳舞等等,教師馬上追問:"你奶奶、媽媽都喜歡到公園里去,肯定是因為公園里的景色很美,誰來說說公園里的美麗景色?"(3)當幼兒因為受同伴的影響回答千篇一律時,教師的追問可以幫助幼兒自主思考。由于幼兒的從眾心理比較普遍,教師能經常注意有效追問,可以培養幼兒自主思考的良好品質。如教師提問怎么安慰生病的同伴時,第一個孩子說要送給她"冰激凌",后面的孩子都跟著說要送給同伴什么好吃的,這時教師可以追問:"送些好吃的給朋友,朋友很開心,還能做什么事也讓朋友感到開心?"● 善于梳理和總結當幼兒的回答表述不夠清晰、比較零散時,教師應在充分傾聽幼兒回答的基礎上,對幼兒的回答進行梳理、提煉和總結,幫助幼兒將零碎的經驗系統化和條理化。如在大班語言活動《河馬村長》中,孩子們為許多動物都安排了工作,教師對幼兒的回答進行了梳理總結:"剛才小朋友為動物安排工作,有的先選動物再幫它安排工作,如安排小狗當保安……有的是根據村里的工作來選擇合適的動物,如村里需要衛生管理員,你們選了松鼠……從這些來看,你們都是根據動物的特長來安排工作的。"2.給幼兒適當的思考空間好的提問往往需要幼兒做出一定的思考,這時教師不能急于告知答案,而應耐心等候。特別當有的幼兒舉手后被老師叫起回答卻又突然答不上來時,教師不要給予批評,允許幼兒坐下去再思考一下。

                  3.給幼兒評價的機會讓幼兒對同伴的回答作出評價,可以讓幼兒對老師的提問再一次進行思考,提高孩子的注意力,同時也可培養幼兒的自我評價意識,提高孩子學習的積極性。需要注意的是,這種方法在中小班慎用,他們還缺乏評價的能力。在大班運用時,要在幼兒對答案正確與否有較清晰的認識的基礎上進行,這時讓幼兒評價就有針對性。如語言活動中教師經常會讓幼兒給故事起名,當幼兒各抒己見起名后,不妨問幼兒:"你們覺得哪個名字最好?好在哪里?"





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